Safe guard technique refers to changing the hardware and procedure. Hardware is anything which you can touch; it is a physical and tangible item.
Consider an example that once there was an explosion due to cylinders in a production firm and that firm was insured and insurance company became liable to pay the damages. Surveyors inspected the situation and reached at a result that maintenance of cylinders was not good; experts used this technique of safeguard for future explosion’s safety. The manufacturing company of the cylinders is usually responsible for its maintenance. The risk managers talked to the manager that if they can eliminate the use of cylinders but that was not possible, as cylinder increased the working capacity of their machinery. Then the risk manger suggested alternate techniques, they suggested that manual handling of cylinder can b replaced by automation. This was the example of changing the hardware. The expense of changing the hardware was less then the expense of huge loss, changing of hardware reduced and changed the risk.
It is not necessary that risk manager gives this suggestion after the happening of incident, if the risk manager thinks that there is something or some risks which will adversely effect the organization, the risk manager can reduce the impact of that risk by changing the hardware or procedure.
Now consider the example of changing the software, in a manufacturing concern three chemicals are mixed together to make a chemical which is being used as a raw material. While mixing these chemicals together, there was explosion in the organization which caused huge losses. The risk manager then analyzed the situation and then advised to change the procedure. He advised that initially two chemicals should be mixed together, and then the third chemical should be added, by doing this there was no explosion. The reason of explosion was the strong reaction after the combination of chemicals.